Connect with us ! Google+ LinkedIn Pinterest YouTube

The Link Between Nitric Oxide & Alzheimer’s disease

Share on Facebook0Tweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedIn0Share on Google+0Pin on Pinterest0Email this to someone

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an advanced stage of dementia which progressively worsens with time and is associated brain healthwith a high degree of mortality. The disease is not part of normal aging, and is likely caused by various processes that damage nerve cells.  Many clinical symptoms are associated with AD, including cognitive decline, memory loss, disorientation, language impairment and so on plus AD also has a pronounced effect on the family or their caregivers. In 2010 in the US alone there were over five million cases and over twenty million worldwide.

The cause of AD is not fully known but there is increasing support that amyloid plaque much like the cholesterol laden plaque seen in the arteries around the heart also builds up in the blood vessels in the brain. There are two schools of thought regarding AD causation. The first group believe a small peptide fraction between 40 and 42 amino acids long called amyloid-beta peptide (ABP), which is thought to be the major component of the amyloid plaque eventually forms aggregates outside the cells, adherents of this group are called the Baptists (from the beta). The second group believe in a different culprit called tau proteins which undergo chemical change called phosphorylation to form tangles within the nerve cells, these scientists are referred to a Toaists (from the tau). Whatever, the cause it is becoming increasingly clear that cardiovascular risk factors like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity and diabetes which collectively are the hallmark of metabolic syndrome are intimately associated with AD. All these risk factors ultimately cause endothelial damage in the blood vessels in the brain and endothelial damage is strongly associated with AD.

But what causes either plaque and/or tangles to form in the first place?

Essentially, researchers have pieced together the following sequences of amyloid plaque formation. Nerve cells continually produce large amounts of long strands of a protein called APP (amyloid precursor protein). In AD the production of this protein is significantly accelerated and much more is produced than in normal brain cells. APP is then “cut” into smaller pieces or peptide fragments including ABP by various enzymes called secretases. The small ABP units clump together due to their “glue” like properties to form larger aggregates and “stick” together around the nerve cells literally “chocking” the cell to death. The body of course has a system to breakdown and clear these aggregates from the brain tissue however, in AD patients production of plaque exceeds clearance.

ABP is a nasty toxic molecule that not only directly kills nerve cells but also produces excessive amounts of free radicals which cause further damage and may assist ABP formation in a vicious cycle. Free radicals themselves cause much harm as they are quite damaging to nerve cell structures but also cause endothelial cell damage in the blood vessels.

Endothelial cells are one of the major sites of nitric oxide (NO) production. NO is one of the most important signalling molecules in the body which affects virtually every organ in the body allowing effective communication between cells and providing a wide-array of health benefits. It is a protective molecule that maintains immune, cardiovascular, nervous, kidney, stomach and intestinal, skin and other beneficial effects.

Lack of NO production by endothelial cells due to too much ABP aggregate formation and/or free radical generation only contributes to pathology of AD. Researchers have argued that if the NO production could be assured then AD would be significantly halted in its track. To test this hypothesis, researchers at the Mayo Clinic looked into the link between NO and AD through a number of elegant experiments and came to the following conclusions:

  • When NO production is inhibited by using a known inhibitor, there was increased endothelial damage with ABP levels rising as expected accompanied by AD
  • When NO production was increased by use of a known stimulator of NO production in an animal model of AD, the levels of ABP decreased and there was a significant improvement in memory of animals.
  • Using genetic mice that cannot produce NO, the ABP levels rose in the brain tissue and there was significant brain damage compared to those mice that could naturally produce NO and were clear of AD
  • NO seems to affect the production of ABP but does not affect its clearance suggesting that NO donors may work as preventative of AD rather than reversing AD.

These findings provide further support that keeping NO levels optimal may be beneficial strategy for prevention of AD and that NO donors like the inorganic nitrates may be useful.

You may also be interested in:

Promising New Study on Ashwagandha and Alzheimer’s Symptoms

Austin S.A et-al “Endothelial Nitric Oxide modulates expression and processing of amyloid precursor protein” Circ. Res. 2010; 107:1498-1502

Image by ©2014 Adimas via DollarPhotoClub

3 Comments

  1. Ellie Reply

    Thanks in support of sharing such a good idea, piece
    of writing is fastidious, thats why i have read
    it fully

  2. tejal Reply

    I want information about NO related with alzheimers disease….

    1. Dr. NavNirat Nibber Reply

      Good Afternoon Tejal
      Thanks for your interest in this article. You can find additional information from the references listed, we also have some information at http://www.aor.ca, and of course for specific concerns you can always speak to a qualified healthcare practitioner.
      Kind regards

Leave a Reply to tejal Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Retype the CAPTCHA code from the image
Change the CAPTCHA codeSpeak the CAPTCHA code
 

Protected with IP Blacklist CloudIP Blacklist Cloud

JOIN US NOW
Purus sed vel ultricies, lorem rhoncus. Augue hac, adipiscing risus, sed ac? Pid nunc dignissim, non, ac parturient sociis enim.
Your Information will never be shared with any third party.
SUBSCRIBE TO NEWSLETTER
All rights reserved © Company Name, 2014
Dolor aliquet augue augue sit magnis, magna aenean aenean et! Et tempor, facilisis cursus turpis tempor odio, cursus montes ac turpis. Ultrices! Massa integer augue ridiculus adipiscing, massa cras pid. Turpis placerat scelerisque, vut odio mus non, mattis porttitor, nunc odio, turpis tortor sit? Pid amet, sed facilisis.
  • Goblinus globalus fantumo tandempo
  • Scelerisque cursus dignissim donus
  • Montes vutario lacus quis arcupolisio
  • Leftomato denitro oculus tepircos den
  • Spiratio dodenus christmas popupius
  • Afrenius globalus spiritum tandempo
  • Fitatos vutario lacus quis arcup delis
Here's $3 Off
Apply $3 off at checkout to any AOR product purchase. Just send your name and email and we'll email you your coupon.
Your Information will never be shared with any third party.
JOIN US NOW
Stay ahead of the curve with the latest AOR news, industry trends, and new product launches.
Your Information will never be shared with any third party.
Do you want massive traffic?
Dignissim enim porta aliquam nisi pellentesque. Pulvinar rhoncus magnis turpis sit odio pid pulvinar mattis integer aliquam!
  • Goblinus globalus fantumo tubus dia montes
  • Scelerisque cursus dignissim lopatico vutario
  • Montes vutario lacus quis preambul den lacus
  • Leftomato denitro oculus softam lorum quis
  • Spiratio dodenus christmas gulleria tix digit
  • Dualo fitemus lacus quis preambul pat turtulis
* we never share your e-mail with third parties.
JOIN US TODAY
For the latest:
AOR is committed to your privacy, your information will not be shared with any third party. You may unsubscribe at any time.
COMPANY UPDATES
INDUSTRY TRENDS
PRODUCT LAUNCHES
Nutrition Education
AOR is committed to your privacy, your information will not be shared with any third party. You may unsubscribe at any time.
Science-based facts from our team of top medical experts delivered right to your inbox!
Health Basics
Fitness Advice
JOIGNEZ-NOUS AUJOURD'HUI
Les dernières nouvelles:
AOR s’engage à protéger la confidentialité de vos données. Elles ne seront pas partagées avec des tiers. Vous pouvez vous désabonner à tout moment
MISE À JOUR
TENDANCES DE L'INDUSTRIE
LANCEMENTS DE PRODUITS
JOIN US TODAY
For the latest:
AOR is committed to your privacy, your information will not be shared with any third party. You may unsubscribe at any time.
SPECIAL RETAILER OFFERS
JOIN US TODAY
For the latest:
AOR is committed to your privacy, your information will not be shared with any third party. You may unsubscribe at any time.
MONTHLY PRICE LIST
JOIN US TODAY
For the latest:
AOR is committed to your privacy, your information will not be shared with any third party. You may unsubscribe at any time.
PRODUCT LAUNCHES